October Highlights

The autumn bird migration is now in full swing. This month will bring a mass arrival of thrushes including migrant Blackbirds, Redwings, Fieldfares and Song Thrushes. It is a good idea to keep those feeders topped up during this month as this can attract the common migrants such as Brambling, Chaffinch, and Siskins. Slice and spear apple onto tree branches and you may be rewarded with a sighting of the fruit loving Waxwing and Blackcap. Keep an eye out for the UKs smallest bird, the Goldcrest, weighing it at a mere 6g! They are very distinctive with their yellow/gold strip down their head. They are insect eaters so will often be seen flitting amongst bushes catching small bugs and flies.


In Focus- Grey Seal Pups

Seems a strange time of year of any animal to decide to start giving birth, especially a marine animal just as the strong winds and storms start to blow through tossing up the sea. But there is method in the madness it seems, after a full summer of feasting on rich oily fish the mothers are in the best shape to give birth and suckle their young.

Grey Seal mum and pup.
Copyright Rob Fray
Newborn Grey Seal pup.
Copyright Rob Fray
Grey Seal pup.
Copyright Rob Fray

Grey seal pups are born on quiet, often remote beaches. The mothers haul themselves up onto the beach to give birth to their white fluffy young. The young will stay on this beach suckling their mother’s rich milk for around a month in which time they can put on 30kg in weight every 2 weeks. While the mothers are busy with their young, the male Grey Seals, who can weigh up to 300kg and grow to 2metres in length, stalk the beach fighting with other males to keep their territory and ‘harem’ of females. Once the females have finished suckling their young, they will mate with the dominant male before heading back to the sea leaving their pups alone on the beach. They will stay here for around another 2 weeks while they moult their white fluff and become brave enough to head out into the unpredictable winter seas.

Seals have been the subject of persecution in the past, especially the young Grey Seal pups whose white skins were highly priced. For this reason, seals are protected under the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. This Act allowed Scottish Ministers powers to designate seal haul-out sites and protect them under the Protection of Seals (Designation of Haul-Out Sites) (Scotland) Order 2014. There are currently 47 designated seal haul-out sites in Shetland where it is an offence to intentionally or recklessly disturbed or harass seals.


Moth of the Month- Rosy Rustic

It is getting pretty late in the year for moths but with favourable weather and light winds the Rosy Rustic (Hydraecia micacea) is one of the few that will still be seen in the moth trap. They are a common resident flying from August-October. There size can vary greatly with females generally being larger and darker. The forewings are pointed and pinkish/brown with a rather velvety texture and darker margins in the centre. Adults will lay their eggs on the food plant (a low growing plant such as docks, potatoes, horse tails and yellow iris) before dying off. The eggs overwinter with the larva hatching in April, pupating underground without a cocoon before emerging as an adult in August.

Rosy Rustic
Copyright Rob Fray

In other news…

One of the more curious birds to arrive in October is the Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor). They have grey backs, white underbellies and black and white markings on the wings and tail. Their most distinctive feature is their black mask and sharp hooked beak, giving them their nickname the ‘masked assassin’.

What makes these guys so interesting is their feeding habits. They are predatory, hunting small mammals, birds and lizards which they beat to death with their beaks. In Shetland they often hunt on Goldcrests which are passing through in high numbers at this time of year. They are lone hunters, sitting in wait on a vantage point such as a fence post. They can even imitate other birds calls to try and lure its prey closer. Now for the gruesome bit…once they have made a kill they will cache it for later by impaling it onto thorns and branches within a bush hidden from other predators.

Great Grey Shrike.
Copyright Rob Fray

As they are members of the passerine (songbird) family they have weak feet that are not designed for holding their prey, by impaling it onto a thorn or stick they can use this to secure the food while they use their beaks to pull it apart and devour it. So, if you happen to spot a bush adorned with small dead birds, you’ll know there is a Great Grey Shrike not far away!



September Highlights

It is starting to feel very autumnal now we are into September. The sun seems to be only glimpsed on occasion, the wind is back and there is a chill in the air. It will soon be time to click the heating on and get the fire lit.

Much of the birdlife has already started to move on. The seabirds were the first to leave, the cliffs at Sumburgh head are all bare now that the Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills have left to spend the winter at sea although you may still find Fulmars and Gannets with large young still in the nest. The insect life in the garden will be getting less too as species such as the bumblebees, moths and butterflies migrate or look for a cosy place to hibernate over the winter.


In Focus- Autumn Migration

September is the peak month for the autumn bird migration in Shetland where the birds, having finished breeding, are heading back to their wintering grounds crossing through Shetland en route. During favourable weather conditions (easterly winds) large numbers of migrants and even some vagrants (birds who have been blown off course) can appear in Shetland. Some more memorable visitors have included: Siberian Rubythroat, Chestnut-eared Bunting and Siberian Accentor. Remember to provide a shallow dish of water, as many of these birds have flown a long away and will be thirsty as well as hungry.

Siberian Accentor
Copyright: Rob Fray

Some of the more difficult migrants to identify are the Warblers as many species can be very similar in appearance. Warblers are mostly insect eaters and may be seen flitting between bushes and shrubs in the garden catching small bugs. I will introduce you to a handful of the more common species but if you are unsure of an ID and have managed to get a photograph you can email it to us at shetlandcommunitywildlife@outlook.com or if you are on Facebook, post it on the Nature in Shetland Photos group where there are a lot of local enthusiasts who can help.


Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)

The Willow Warbler is a small warbler (10.5-11.5cm) with a pale underbelly and a green/grey upper body and wings. As many of the individuals passing through in Autumn are juveniles, they tend to be brighter yellow in colour. They have a light-yellow stripe above the eye. They are very similar in appearance to the Chiffchaff but have pale pink legs. Willow Warblers are earlier migrants than the Chiffchaff, commonly seen in early September.

Willow Warbler
Copyright: Rob Fray

Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita)

Chiffchaffs are a similar size (10-11cm) to Willow Warblers but have a more olive-brown colouration, a paler eye stripe and dark grey-black legs. They flit quickly between branches and when stationary express a distinctive tail-wagging behaviour which Willow Warblers do not. Chiffchaffs arrive towards the end of September through until early November.

Chiffchaff
Ken Billington / CC BY-SA

Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus)

The Yellow-browed Warbler is another small warbler, slightly smaller in size to the Willow Warbler and Chiffchaff. They are a little easier to identify than the previous two: they are greenish brown in colour with a pale underbelly, they have a thick, distinctive eye stripe which gives them their ‘yellow-browed’ name and two light coloured wing bars. Formerly, the Yellow-browed Warbler was a very scarce migrant but in recent years they have appeared in much greater numbers to the extent that in late September they are now often the most common migrant warbler in Shetland.

Yellow-browed Warbler
Copyright Rob Fray

Other warblers passing through this month include: Lesser Whitethroat, Garden Warbler and Barred Warbler.


Moth of the Month- Square-spot Rustic

The number of moths flying and coming to the moth trap will be starting to slow down this month as the colder, windier weather of the Autumn starts to come in. One of the later flying moths that is common into September is the Square-spot Rustic (Xestia xanthographa). They get their name from the rather conspicuous square kidney shaped mark on the forewings. Colour can vary from shades of red, grey and brown. I often see the reddish/chestnut colouration which I think is especially pretty.

They are sugar eaters and can be seen feeding on plants such as Ragwort, Heather and Marram. Some years they are seen in large numbers, best seen at dusk over grassland areas.


In other news…

There are a handful of different dolphin species that can be spotted around the Shetland coast. Risso’s Dolphins are resident in the isles and are the most commonly seen. Atlantic White-sided Dolphins are rare vagrants but when they do arrive, they are often in what is known as a ‘super pod’ of 50-100 individuals. White-beaked Dolphins are resident, but sightings are reasonably rare.

Risso’s Dolphin (Grampus griseus) are a large species of dolphin growing up to 4m in length. They are what is known as a beakless dolphin as they have a bulbous square-shaped head. They are dark in colour but become whiter with age, mature animals are often covered in many scars and scratches. These scars come about from fights with other Risso’s and from their favourite prey- squid. Individuals animals can be identified by their unique pattern of scars. They can appear in groups of 50+ individuals although in Shetland, groups of over 20 are rarely seen.

Risso’s Dolphin with calf
Copyright: Rob Fray


Secrets of the Strandline

Beachcombing can be a really fun activity; I always get a feeling of excited anticipation when I step onto a beach as I never know what I might find. And the brilliance of it is, with the tide coming in and out twice a day there is always something new to discover.

This article will introduce you to some of the natural treasures that may be lurking out there just waiting to be found on the beaches in Shetland. For more information on other projects and activities to get involved in on the beach have a look at our Projects page.

It can be tricky to ID some of the finds as they can look a bit weathered from the sea and the surf. We are always happy to help, either send us an email at shetlandcommunitywildlife@outlook.com or tag us on facebook @SCWG. There is also a brilliant group on Facebook full if local enthusiasts who would love to see all your finds, just search Shetland Seashore Discoveries.

It is great fun hunting for all those natural wonders amongst the strandline but we all know too well that often the man-made and plastic materials on our strandlines can out-number the natural. Why not take a bag and some gloves with you whenever you head to the beach and do a #2minutebeachclean, the wildlife will most definitely thank you! Visit www.beachclean.net/ for more info.


Shark and Skate Eggcases

Copyright: Sally Hubband
Copyright: Sally Hubband

Many skate and shark species around Shetland lay eggcases (also known as mermaid’s purses) which lie on the sea floor or wrapped amongst seaweed and kelp. Each eggcase holds a single embryo which once developed breaks out of the eggcase. These eggcases then often become washed up on our beaches. There are a surprising variety of eggcases and once you get looking it is interesting to see how many different species you can find on a beach. Click here to see our post on the Shetland Eggcase Hunt which will give you all the info you will need to identify the eggcases you find and how to record them. To find put more about the joys of hunting eggcases, read Sally Hubband’s experiences.


Urchins

If you are super lucky you may find an intact urchin but more commonly, as they are very fragile, it is just fragments that are washed up. There are two common types of urchin in Shetland, the Edible Sea Urchin (Echinus esculentus) which has a pinky red shell with white spots where the spines have broken off. The second species is the Green Sea Urchin (Psammechinus miliaris) which as its name suggests is a greenish brown in colour.

You may also find what is know as an ‘Aristotle’s Lantern’ which is actually the mouth part of the urchin and is often found as it is the toughest part of an Urchin. It is used to scrape and tear algae which is then chewed with the teeth.

Copyright ©2003 Daniel P. B. Smith
Copyright MAKY.OREL / CC0

Sea Potato

Copyright: S. Rae

Sea Potatoes (Echinocardium cordatum) are a relative of the sea urchin and are also known as heart urchins. They are a sandy colour with fine spines which give it a hairy appearance although these spines may have been worn off in the surf.


Jellyfish

Jellyfish in their adult stage, are not long-lived creatures and once they have spawned, they will die. Moon Jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) are the most common jellyfish found in Shetland. They are easily recognised by its transparent bell with four pink-purple rings. As they are often found in large shoals and spawning happens en masse, large numbers of these jellyfish (sometimes in their thousands) can often be washed up on beaches at the same time. Moon jellyfish feed on plankton and as such only have a mild sting which is unlikely to be felt by humans.

Blue Jellyfish
Copyright: Malene Thyssen

The largest jellyfish to visit our waters is the Lion’s Mane Jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) which is commonly seen at sizes of 0.5m in the UK but can grow up to 2m in diameter in Arctic waters. It is known as the Lion’s Mane due to the mass of tentacles around the underside of the bell and the jellyfish’s brown-red colouration. Care should be taken if you come across one in the water or on the shore as their sting is severe and they are still able to sting even when dead.

Moon Jellyfish
Copyright Kathryn Allan

The Blue Jellyfish (Cyanea lamarckii) grows up to around 30 cm and can range from pale yellow-brown (younger specimens) to light blue-purple. They have trailing stinging tentacles on the underside of the bell along with clusters of stinging tentacles on the upper surface of the bell. Their sting is fairly mild and similar to that a stinging nettle.

Lion’s Mane Jellyfish
Copyright W.carter / CC0

Goose Barnacles

Copyright: Rachel Shucksmith

The Common Goose Barnacle (Lepas anatifera) is the most commonly found species of goose barnacle on our shores. They are a type of crustacean which spend their lives attached to drifting objects floating on the ocean’s surface. They have a flexible stalk which attaches to the floating object with a shelled ‘head’ which protects its feeding legs. These feeding legs uncurl from the shell and catch floating plankton. Goose barnacles are often found in large clusters on objects that have become washed ashore.


Whelk Eggs

These are one of the commonest finds on our beaches. They have a spongy appearance and are often mistaken for a type of natural sponge and were in fact used by mariners for washing in the past. These egg masses are actually from either the Common Whelk (Buccinum undatum) or the Red Whelk (Neptunea antiqua) which are both common species around Shetland.

Copyright: Sarah Smith

Cuttlefish Bones

Copyright: Christine Matthews

These are less common on Shetland beaches compared to the rest of the UK. They are from the Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and can be up to 40cm in length. Cuttlefish are molluscs and members of the cephalopod family along with squid and octopus. The bone that is washed up is filled with gas and used to control buoyancy by adding or releasing the gas. As these bones float, they are easily washed onto beaches. They are made from calcium carbonate and have many uses including as a dietary supplement for birds and reptiles.


Sea Beans

These are actually plant seeds that are specially designed to drift long distances in water. They have a very strong outer shell that stops water from penetrating inside and rotting the seed, some have air pockets on the inside to keep them buoyant. These seeds generally come from tropical plants that may have spent months or even years drifting across the Atlantic from the Americas, and the West Indies. You would have to be very lucky to find one of these drift seeds in Shetland as they are very rarely reported. There are a handful of different species but two of the most likely would be the Sea Heart from the Entada gigas plant or a Horse-eye Bean (sometimes known as hamburger bean) from the Mucuna spp.

Sea Heart
Copyright: Jeff Delonge
Horse-eye Bean
Copyright: BAxelrod

On rare occasions larger animals may become stranded or wash up on the beach. Please note that marine mammals can carry a variety of diseases than can be transferable to humans  – please don’t touch or allow dogs to get too close.  If possible try to take a variety of photos and estimate the length – this will help with ID.

If you find a stranded marine mammal contact the SSPCA on 03000 999 999 or the Hillswick Wildlife Sanctuary on 01806 503348. For more advice visit their website https://www.hillswickwildlifesanctuary.org/advice/

If you find a dead marine mammal on the shore report it to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme on www.strandings.org/ or to NatureScot (formally SNH) who will coordinate collection of samples or sending the animal south for post mortem examination.  For dead otters please also report them to NatureScot on  01463 667600 (Lerwick office) or NORTH@nature.scot


Calling all divers and snorkellers!

We are looking for records of rare and important marine life. In Shetland we are very fortunate to have a long and varied coastline, home to a wide variety of marine life. Compared to other parts of the UK, the Shetland coastline is relatively well studied thanks to survey work undertaken to support the building of Sullom Voe, work at the NAFC Marine Centre to map important marine habitats and continued government agency survey work. But there are still large amounts of coastline yet to be surveyed.

That’s where we need your help, we are asking divers and snorkellers to report sightings of five key species which are either rare or sensitive to disturbance or are considered of high biological value:

Spiny Lobster. Copyright National Lobster Hatchery
White Cluster Anemone. Copyright Paul Naylor
Fan Mussel. Copyright Dr Keith Hiscock
Burrowing Anemone. Copyright JNCC (Bernard Picton)
Native Oyster. Copyright Paul Naylor

We would also be interested to hear about records of important seabed habitats which are sensitive to disturbance and considered of high biological value:

Maerl. Copyright Rachel Shucksmith
Seagrass Bed. Copyright Paul Naylor
Horse Mussel. Copyright Rachel Shucksmith

In Scotland, these important species have been termed ‘Priority marine features’- Download our PMF Leaflet to find out more. We are still keen to hear of records in locations where these species have been known for a long time, particularly if you have noticed them disappearing or becoming more abundant. Your records can provide important information on changes to these key species and habitats, which might overwise go unnoticed. For instance, seagrass beds in the Vadills are known to have died back, but when this occurred is not clear.

We would also welcome records of any unusual species or invasive species (Shetland’s Marine Non-native Species), or shark and skate eggcases you might spot when diving (Shetland Shark and Skate Eggcase Hunt).


Inside a Shetland Rockpool

Rockpooling can be a fun activity to for the young, and not so young alike. There is a huge variety of species in this very changeable habitat. Many species have developed special adaptations to allow them to live in this harsh landscape, with changing sea levels, water temperature, salinity levels and the battering of waves. Read on to find out more about some of the most common species you are likely to see in a Shetland rockpool.

Just remember, if you plan on taking a trip to the coast, check the tide times first and be mindful of the rising tide. Do not go alone and always carry a mobile phone, if you find yourself in trouble call 999 and ask for the coastguard.

Green Shore Crab (Carcinus maenas)- Most common crab found on our seashores, they can grow up to 6cm (carapace width) but are usually smaller juveniles that are found in rockpools and under rocks on the lower shore. Their colouration can vary from a green/brown to a bright orange underside with many patterns and blotches. Females will be moulting during the summer months with breeding following straight after. The female will can lay up to 185 000 eggs which she holds in an orange sac under a flap on the underside of her abdomen.

Beadlet Anemone. Copyright: Richard Shelmerdine

Common Limpet (Patella vulgate)- Found in large numbers at all levels of the tide line, they have a very strong muscular foot which it uses to stay attached to the rock which allows them to live in areas with strong wave action. They graze on algae and micro-organisms that grow and live on the rock surface. They return each day to what is known as a ‘home scar’ which they create using their shell to cut into the rock.

Copyright: Richard Shelmerdine
Green Shore Crab. Copyright: NAFC Marine Centre UHI

Beadlet Anemone (Actinia equina)- Very common anemone seen in most rockpools and on the underside of rocks below the high-water mark. When out of the water they retract their tentacles, extending them again once submerged in water. These tentacles are used to catch floating food which it then moves to the mouth parts in the centre of its body. They use their tentacles for defence giving any intruder or neighbouring anemone a sting.

Copyright: Richard Shelmerdine

Common Periwinkle (Littorina littorea)- Known locally as whelks these little snails are a common seashore inhabitant in Shetland. Preferring rocky areas with good weed cover where they feed on different types of algae. This species is of commercial importance, they are gathered by locals and sold to the vivier trucks (trucks with seawater tanks used to transport live seafood) which visit the isles before travelling south as far as France and Spain to be sold on.

Dog Whelk. Copyright: Richard Shelmerdine

Dog Whelk (Nucella lapillus)- Found on most rocky shores in Shetland the Dog Whelk is similar to the Common Periwinkle but generally paler in colour with spiral ridges. Unlike the Common Periwinkle who are strictly vegetarian, Dog Whelks are carnivores, preying on barnacles, mussels and other bivalves. They use their mouth parts, known as a proboscis, to force open the shells of bivalves (mussels and clams) or drill a hole in the shell of its prey to remove the flesh inside. They are also NOT edible as they are apparently ‘distasteful’.

Butterfish (Pholis gunnellus)- A small eel-like fish up to 25cm long with continuous dorsal fin running the length of its body. They are a red/brown colour distinguishable by the ~12 black spots outlined with white along the base of the dorsal fin. They can be found in rock pools or in very shallow water underneath stones. Their skin is covered in a slimy coating making they very difficult to catch by hand, hence the name. They are the most commonly seen fish in rock pools in Shetland.

Common Starfish. Copyright: W.carter / CC0

Common Mussels (Mytilus edulis)- A very important commercial species in Shetland with 80% of Scotland’s mussels grown in Shetland. They are grown commercially on ropes suspended from header ropes held up on the surface by large floats. They are also common on our seashore where they can be seen in often very large groups (known as beds) attached to rocks using thin but very strong threads called basal threads. They are blue/purple in colour with size and shape varying dependant on environmental conditions. Even though they are edible, it is not recommended to eat wild mussels, being filter feeders, those in shoreline areas can contain a lot of sand making them gritty to eat, they can also ingest large quantities of E-Coli which can be found in run-off from surrounding farmland and septic tank run-off. Additionally, they can accumulate a naturally occurring, but toxic algae which is common in the summer and autumn.

Edible Sea Urchin. Copyright: NAFC Marine Centre UHI

Barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides)- Super abundant in Shetland found at all levels of the intertidal zone. Barnacles live an upside-down life; they are permanently cemented to the rock by their head and, when covered by water, feed with their feet (cirri). They famously have the largest genitals (about 15 cm) to body size ratio in the animal kingdom.

Sandhoppers. S. Rae from Scotland, UK / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
Butterfish. Copyright: NAFC Marine Centre UHI

Common Starfish (Asterias rubens)- Very abundant species in Shetland but scarce in rockpools except for occasional juveniles in low tide areas. Adults can however commonly be seen on pier and harbour structures. At their maximum they can grow up to 50cm but are more commonly seen to be around 10-30cm. They are orange/pale brown with 5 arms each with many rows of short tube feet which they use to move along the seabed. They can live on a wide range of substrate from sand, gravel to rocks and can sometimes occur in very large groups. They feed on a large range of species including bivalves, small crustaceans and other echinoderms. They use their tube feet to price open the shells of other creatures before extracting their stomach and placing it directly into the fleshy area to digest its meal. They have another clever adaptation where, if captured by predators, they are able to lose a leg to escape and will grow a new one, so if you spot a starfish with a leg smaller than the others, it is in the process of re-growing.

Common Mussels. Copyright: Rachel Shucksmith

Edible Sea Urchin (Echinus esculentus)- Known locally as ‘Skaadman’s head’.A large urchin around 15-16cm in diameter, they are red in colour, although shade may vary. They are covered in pinkish white spines and when submerged soft tentacles are extended in rows alongside the spines. They have a hard bony ‘beak’ on their underside which they use to feed on algae and barnacles.  They are scarce in rockpools but are often seen on piers and harbour walls. They are often found washed up on beaches, usually broken and with no spines left intact. They are known as the Edible Sea Urchin as the roe was eaten as a delicacy in some areas of the UK.

Barnacles: Copyright Richard Shelmerdine

Sandhoppers- Commonly found on sandy beaches under rocks or seaweed above the high-water mark. They can also be found along the strandline amongst rotting weed. They are a staple food source for many seashore birds include Turnstone, Oystercatcher and Ringed Plover. They get their name from the leaping movement they use to propel themselves away from danger.


August Highlights

The sun is still shining (some of the time) and summer is still in the air but the wildlife will be starting to slow down a little. Our garden birds have successfully reared possibly up to three broods of young who have fledged the nest. Some species, such as Curlews, Starlings, Golden Plovers and Oyster Catchers are starting to flock together in quite large numbers now that breeding has finished. Take a look in the cut fields (favoured feeding area for many wading birds) in your area and you may spot Ruff and Black-tailed Godwit in amongst the flocks of Curlews. Our seabirds are also starting to head back out to sea for the winter so these first couple of weeks in August may be your last chance to head up to Sumburgh Head to catch a sight of the puffins.

In Focus-Rockpools

Shetland has a variety of seashore habitats from the long pale sandy beaches of the South Mainland to the red sands of Eshaness in the North. An abundance of low rocky shore in between gives plenty of opportunities for a spot of rockpooling. One of the best spots is Leebitten at the North end of Sandwick which has a large expanse of seaweed cover rocks and pools at low tide.

Within these areas you will find an array of different species perfectly adapted for living in this harsh, ever changing environment. To find out more about the species to spot, take a look at our Inside a Shetland Rockpool post. And don’t forget to keep a look out for any alien invaders and non-native species, check out our Marine NNS post for more details.

Copyright Rachel Shucksmith
Copyright Kathryn Allan

It is a perfect summer activity to do with children giving them an opportunity to explore nature hands on, just remember to put anything you find back once you have finished looking at it and replace and upturned rock and weed.

If you plan on taking a trip to the coast, check the tide times first and be mindful of the rising tide. Do not go alone and always carry a mobile phone, f you find yourself in trouble call 999 and ask for the coastguard.

Moth of the Month- Large Yellow Underwing

The Large Yellow Underwing (Noctua pronuba) is a large moth with a wingspan of around 45-55mm. This distinctive moth gets its name from the yellow/orange coloured underwings only visible during flight when the forewings are open. It is a common resident moth in Shetland, active from July to September but often has a peak in numbers in August. Can be found in a range of habitats from moorland to grassland and gardens where, during the day they take cover amongst ground vegetation where they can be seen flying for cover if disturbed.

Copyright: Jacy Lucier / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

In other news…

Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are a relatively common sight around Shetland waters in August where they can be seen feeding just off the coast. They are the smallest of the baleen whales growing to around 8-9 metres long and living up to 50 years.

They are black to dark grey with a white underbelly and have distinctive white bands around their pectoral fins (flippers). They have a long, pointed snout and two blow holes on top of their heads.

NOAA / Public domain

Baleen whales- Filter feeding whales with large baleen plates in their mouths instead of teeth. Baleen is made from keratin, the same substance in hair and nails so is stiff yet elastic and is layered in plates in two rows along the top jaw of baleen whales somewhat like combs of thick hair. When feeding, water is taken into the mouth and pushed out through the baleen plates to filter out food such as krill and plankton which is then swallowed.

Copyright Karen Hall

The most common UK sightings of Minke whales are in Scotland and Shetland has its fair share. They are often spotted from cliffs and headlands where they can be seen fishing in strong currents. They fish by taking in large quantities of seawater known as ‘lunge feeding’. Long pleats in their throat allow it to expand and take in large mouthfuls. The water is then forced back out through the baleen plates and the prey swallowed. They have a varied diet feeding on a range of small fish, krill and zooplankton.

“The minke whale, like all cetaceans, is protected as a European Protected Species (EPS). EPS legislation protects all species of cetacean from deliberate and reckless killing, injury and disturbance. Information on how to minimise the risk of activities which may kill, injure or disturb minke whales is set out in Marine Scotland’s guidance on The protection of marine European Protected Species from injury and disturbance.

The minke whale is also a Priority Marine Feature in Scotland’s seas and has recently been included within two of four additional Nature Conservation MPA proposals for designation to complete the Scottish MPA network.

The Scottish Marine Wildlife Watching Code provides the best guidance for wildlife watching operators, and will help us all enjoy and support the conservation of this wonderful baleen whale.”

(https://www.nature.scot/plants-animals-and-fungi/mammals/marine-mammals/minke-whale)


Summer Holiday Project #5- Create your own Mini Ecosystem

This is a great fun activity and really easy to do. We used different species of moss in ours but you could use any small plants such as sedums and alpines that don’t grow too big. Once made just pop it on a sunny windowsill and watch it change and grow. It is also a great way to learn and watch the water cycle in action keeping your mini ecosystem alive and thriving.

Download the Mini Ecosystem leaflet to find out how to get started.


Summer Holiday Project #4- Build your own Hibernaculum

What’s a hibernaculum I hear you ask…..it is a warm, dry, safe place for reptiles and amphibians to hibernate over the winter. The word ‘hibernaculum’ means “winter quarter”, with the Latin word hibernus meaning “winter”.

Here in Shetland the Common Frog is our only amphibian, but they are plentiful. They hibernate over the winter in underground holes to avoid the cold and frost, their heart and breathing rate slow right down and they no longer need to find food.

By creating a hibernaculum in your garden, you are providing the perfect place for frogs to hibernate whilst making space for nature and encouraging more wildlife into your garden.

Download the Hibernaculum leaflet to find out how to get started.


Have you spotted a Crofter’s Wig?

Crofter’s Wig (Ascophyllum nodosum ecad makii) is a very rare and interesting little seaweed. It is a form of egg wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum)but is free-living (not attached to anything). It is thought to have first originated from broken fragments of the normal form of egg wrack but in very sheltered conditions grows unattached. It gets it’s name, Crofter’s Wig, from the wig-shaped masses it forms. It prefers the mid-upper tidal zone in very sheltered areas such as the head of some voes where it is not at risk of being washed away by stormy weather.

Austin Taylor/ Copyright Shetland Islands Council

To submit any potential sightings of this species, send your name, location (with a grid reference if possible) and a photograph if you have one, to us via email to shetlandcommunitywildlife@outlook.com or fill in the contact form here.

Austin Taylor/ Copyright Shetland Islands Council

It is a Priority Marine Feature (PMF) and a UK Biodiversity Action Plan species (UKBAP). It provides an important habitat for other seashore species such as crabs and molluscs.

So far in Shetland it has only been recorded on the west side of Shetland and is considered globally rare. The Shetland records might represent the northern most extent of this species.

Austin Taylor/ Copyright Shetland Islands Council

Summer Holiday Project #3- Make your own BIOGAS

This week is all about science. We want you to head back to the shore to collect more seaweed so that you can make your own renewable energy source- BIOGAS.

BIOGAS is made up of methane and carbon dioxide which can be used as a renewable source of fuel or turned into electricity and heat. Seaweed is a great material for making BIOGAS as seaweed farming is environmentally sustainable, but you can also give it a try with grass cuttings or food waste. You can also try changing the conditions in which you make your BIOGAS, try putting it in a sunny spot or dark cupboard, a warm or cold place- what happens?

Download our BIOGAS leaflet to get started.